- Sound of Africa!: Making Music Zulu in a South African Studio - Louise Meintjes - Google Libros
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- Sound of Africa!: Making Music Zulu in a South African Studio
- Africa toto four part harmony
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Sound of Africa!: Making Music Zulu in a South African Studio - Louise Meintjes - Google Libros
They are "wholly aestheticand deeply political" p. In the end, what Meintjesis able to glean from her Journal of AnthropologicalResearch,vol. Meintjes's theoreticalleitmotifis mediation,which she describesas a process of both transferenceand transformation p. The studio is a place where sounds aremediatedtechnologically:they aremanipulatedandencodedin a physicalform fit for dissemination,"makingothernew At the same time, the fact that this process is going on makes the studio a place where sound is mediatedsymbolically.
In otherwords, what is also being "produced"in the studio is meaning. The technologicalmanipulationof sounds is only one part of this process. Mediated sounds act as sign vehicles with referentsthat are also manipulated,though throughmore complex and fluid social processes in which power anothermediatingelement is always implicated.
The studioof Meintjes'sfield researchis also the site of yet anotherprocessof mediation-ethnography. As her interlocutorswork through the productionof their album,Meintjes works throughthe productionof her thesis. Both processes are full of startsand stops, reversalsand insertions. The book is thus conceived in the formof a recordingsession, with "cuts"insteadof chapters,"tracks"insteadof subheadings,etc.
It is not at all an empty gesture,but a way beyondthe constraints of linear argument and closer to the associational characterof ethnographic inquiry. The form worksbest in the pages thatdescribeand parse the interactions within the walls of the studio. The iconicity of object and representationwork to offer both a visceral sense of the studio experienceand a powerfulreminderthat ethnographyandethnographersare andshouldbe fully complicitin keepinglocal conversationson the move.
Meintjes's fine-grained approach to musical significance and symbolic mediation should be enough to make Sound of Africa! Scholarsof mediaandpopularculture,andthose interestedin the problemof subjectivityin contemporaryAfrica,will also find muchof value in this monograph.
- Sound of Africa!: Making Music Zulu in a South African Studio | [email protected]
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Street Childrenin Kenya: Voices of Childrenin Search of a Childhoodis written by a team of ruralsociologists and anthropologists,two of whom are Kenyans. Street childrenare related to, and equatedwith, the workingpoor and homeless populationsin Nairobi,Kenya.
Sound of Africa!: Making Music Zulu in a South African Studio
Hence, streetchildrenand theirlife circumstances Journal of Anthropological Research, vol. Related Papers. Music and global order. By Hiu Cheung.
By Louise Meintjes. Space Keywords in Sound. By Andrew J Eisenberg. By Violeta Ruano. Download pdf. The dance-songs have similarities with those of the Sotho , and rhythm is similarly tied to bodily movement, but they make greater use of melodic instruments, including the reed-pipe, which is used for the kubina dithlaka a reed-pipe ensemble and also a moonlight dance directed by polyrhythmic melodic improvisation on the reed-pipe , as well as musical bows and the moropa a resonant round clay drum.
The Tsonga dance-songs are notably more dramatic in purpose than those of the Tswana , featuring tinsimu ta mintsheketo dance-song drama where dance-songs not only recount but actually re-enact folkloric tales. The music is less rhythmically complex but even more intricate in its responsorial singing, where calls and responses envoice the human and animal characters in the stories, often adapted with the purpose of articulating topical social comment and spiritual reflection. The music of the Venda , due to their isolated mountainous locale and their more insular language and customs, is markedly distinct from these other lineages.
Africa toto four part harmony
Song and dance have a place of primacy in Venda society, and are taught in school with equal intensity to language, literacy and numeracy. As a result, all members of Venda society have a remarkable aptitude for singing, rhythm and movement. The singing revolves around pentatonic and heptatonic scales and the dancing is underpinned by percussive hand-clapping patterns, often supported by drumming and by melodic ostinato patterns on lamellophones e.
Yet, there is an enormous variety of core indigenous dance-song genres: more than 70 impressive bearing in mind many entire nations have around core traditional dance genres on equivalent classifications of what constitutes a dance genre as both distinct and indigenous , which vary from responsorial collective events as above to solo virtuoso ecstatic spectacles, but aesthetic values of strength, vitality, virtuosity and precision are common.
Collective performance functions in the seasonal cycle, as in work songs e. Zwilombe semi-professional musicians perform at social and ceremonial events ostensibly as a form of entertainment but also as a socially-accepted form of social critique, as their mastery of song, verse, dance and rhythm deems them worthy of oppositional opinion; Zwilombe would expressive personal opinion and envoice communal comment and, in return for beer, they could be solicited by leaders a political pawn for spreading criticisms and ridicule of rival chiefs.
The subjugation of indigenous peoples by European imperialists initiated radical cultural transformations in the region. Within the confines of the colony, the traditional customs of black indigenous populations faced heavy suppression and those engaging with them suffered brutal persecution. In response, black slaves in Cape Colony started to syncretise their traditional musics, fusing their vocalities, melodies and rhythms into Christian religious musics as a means of preserving them without harassment. Yet, the British expulsion of the vast majority of the black population and the resultant establishment of the rival exile states e.
As oral traditions that adapted to the times, a great deal of traditional music was nurtured around warfare and social struggle: for example, under King Shaka, immense ukweshwama ceremonies were held in Zululand where they morphed from a harvest festival into a symbolic enactment of the might of the Zulu amabutho , with spectacular dance-song performance featuring new warfare-derived choreographies against a powerful beat provided by collective foot-stamping as before and also now the smashing of spears against shields from the amabutho themselves.
In the shebeens of the townships, Marabi and mbaqanga , as pan-tribal dance forms, helped to unify the diverse indigenous tribes further into a united black liberation movement. Though less central to the black South African struggle than the others, mbube and isicathamiya offered isolated Zulu workers in the cities a means of building community and a vehicle for escape, for catharsis and for maintaining links to their traditional customs and identities. On top of this, the state intensified its direct persecution of musicians: huge swathes of musicians were imprisoned and a great number of outspoken oppositional musicians were executed including famous names like Vuyisile Mini.
This repression resulted in an exodus of musicians from South Africa, initiating a diaspora that included eminent South African musicians e. Hugh Masekela and Abdullah Ibrahim who helped to bring global attention to the music and plight of black South Africans around the world. However, in spite of, and perhaps even to some extent because of, this censorship, music became increasingly politicised over the next decades under apartheid.
Yet, after the implementation of censorship, engaging in music became a powerful act of cultural resistance in itself and music became ever more prominent as a tool for political organisation in uninhibited autonomous black environments in the townships and cities. Music was even employed as a tool for direct social rebellion: makwaya were sung collectively at protests and at mass demonstrations of mourning e. Moreover, musicians developed shrewd ways of bypassing censorship e. Shifty Records , enabling them to exploit new channels of broadcasting for envoicement and empowerment without detection.
Outside South Africa itself, diasporic musicians helped galvanise an international solidarity effort: the Artists United Against Apartheid and the Rock Against Racism movements brought attention to the suffering of black South Africans; the cultural boycott, though controversial e. Ladysmith Black Mambazo , who helped to further expose the horrors of apartheid. Nelson Mandela alike have recognised the central role that music played in the liberation struggle. Since the fall of apartheidand the ascent of the ANC, South Africa has restored the presence of its own traditional musics, upholding the right of traditional communities to maintain their oral customs and cultural rituals, integrating the study of traditional culture into the national curriculum, displaying its diversity at local and national festive celebrations and encouraging the continued development of syncretic musical forms.
here Eminent exiles have returned home to triumphant receptions, recent regulations guarantee a strong presence for South African musicians on state radio stations and mbaqanga , isicathamiya and a whole host of new hybrid forms have become popular, and have received acclaim, on national and international levels. Blacking, John, How Musical is Man? Seattle: University of Washington Press, Coplan, David, In Township Tonight!
Meintjes, Louise, Sound of Africa! Nel, Andries et al. Rycroft, David et al. Walton, Chris and Stephanus Muller eds. Header Image: Flickr.
Zulu Amabutho : Ian Knight. Mandela in prison under apartheid : Britannica. Host of World Cup: Egypt Independent. Modern-day izibongo : Chronicle, Incwala ceremony: Sandile Nkambule, Swazi Observer. Mokhibo dance: Ludo Kuipers, Cape Malay traditional performance: Africa Media Online. The electric maskanda : Maskandi. Isicathamiya choirs competing in a city hostel: Isicathamiya Documentary. Mahlathini and the Mahotella Queens: K. Whitehouse ANC activists singing makwaya hymns at an underground meeting during apartheid: Amandla!
Toyi-toyi: Boersma, P.